With the modern development of medicine and much research done, scientists cannot fully determine the true causes of the development of scaly lichen. Psoriasis is a disease of the skin and tissues that surround the joints. The disease is characterized by a non-infectious course, with the appearance of papules and red spots with a tendency to fusion. These formations are dry, scaly, appear above the surface of the skin and represent a chronic and localized process. Microscopy determines a significant number of keratinocytes, cells of the immune system (T lymphocytes and macrophages), with abundant growth of the vascular network.
Psoriasis and its causes, with this development of medicine, are being actively investigated, but nobody determines the final cause of the appearance.
Scientists identify several main bases for the development of pathology:
- Genetics- the hereditary theory of the appearance of psoriasis is based on the fact that if ancestors or close relatives have this pathology, the risk of its appearance in subsequent generations is equal to 25%if a parent is sick. With the development of the disease in both parents, the risk of its occurrence in the offspring rises to 70%. It is possible for a healthy child to be born to sick parents, but after a while, under the influence of the above factors, the disease develops in him.
- Immune defect- Examining the histological material of patients with psoriasis, scientists revealed an excessive accumulation of diseased immune cells in the layers of the epidermis. At the same time, specific antibodies were found, and in the superficial layers of the epidermis - Munro microabscesses (accumulation of intercellular fluid, leukocytes, macrophages). A general blood test shows an increase in the number of leukocytes (T-helpers), all of which speaks of the autoimmune nature of the disease.
- Viral injury- in this case, it means retrovirus infection. This strain inserts its own tRNA chain into the host cell, replacing its genetic code with a viral one. That is manifested in the production and excessive multiplication of immature and undifferentiated cells of the dermis.
An interesting fact is that antipsoriatic treatment according to autoimmune theory aims to reduce the number of immune cells, including T-helpers. In the presence of psoriasis in people infected with HIV / AIDS, the number of these cells decreases to the limit values and the risk of developing psoriasis increases. Further investigation of this fact can completely refute the autoimmune theory of the development of psoriasis.
Psoriasis development factors
What causes psoriasis? There are several provocative factors that negatively affect the body:
- Stress- this factor is the trigger for the psoriatic rash and the final link, under the influence of which the rash is reduced. This factor is one of the main factors, since the appearance of psoriasis in 50% of cases occurs precisely because of extreme fatigue, psychological trauma and nervous wear. With the onset of remission of psoriasis, any mental shock can cause a relapse;
- Infections- a group of diseases, with the development of which arose primary outbreaks of psoriatic eruption. These diseases include: all infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract, bacterial and fungal infections that affect the skin, mononucleosis. In patients with psoriasis, the presence of an increased amount of pathogenic microflora (beta-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus) was determined. Candidiasis is a fungal infectious process in which psoriasis develops more frequently;
- External influence- a large number of patients associate the appearance of psoriasis as a result of external physical factors. Most of the time they are: mechanical trauma to the skin, burns, hypothermia and cold ulceration;
- Endocrinopathies- this group of diseases is accompanied by impaired functioning of the body as a whole. This factor is most often found in females, due to frequent changes in hormone levels in connection with growth, pregnancy, menstrual cycle, menopause. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the metabolism is significantly disturbed, while a constant excess of glucose adversely affects human tissues and organs, causing the development of other diseases;
- Toxins- act as another cause of psoriasis in the body. Its appearance is associated with food poisoning, work in factories or factories, abuse of certain products (citrus fruits, coffee, chocolate). Alcohol and tobacco, with their toxic effects, cause many diseases, including psoriasis;
- The pathogenic effect includestaking medications.It has been shown that a small number of patients started to develop psoriasis while taking the following drugs: NSAIDs, beta-blockers, fortified drugs (vitamins in groups C, B, D), cytostatics, antibiotics (cephalosporins).
Prevention of psoriasis
Many factors contribute to the development of psoriasis. The basic theory has not yet been determined and any preventive measures must be comprehensive and targeted in a comprehensive manner. Patients must reconsider their lifestyle. If necessary, move your place of residence to a greener area.
It is recommended to avoid stressful situations. It is possible to take antidepressants and sedatives. The diet should include more fiber, non-allergenic fruits and vegetables, meat, fish. When treating concomitant pathologies, it is imperative to abandon bad habits, consult a doctor about replacement therapy. Take treatment courses at specialized sanatoriums.