Psoriasis is non-contagious skin disease that is manifested by formation of red scaly patches covered with itchy, silvery scales. Usually psoriasis develops in young people from 20 to 30 years. Disease is not a threat to human life, but cause him severe suffering of a psychological nature, until social exclusion.
The causes of the disease
The causes of psoriasis, to date, not fully understood. There are some factors that are associated with the occurrence of psoriasis. However, by themselves these factors are not able to cause psoriasis, only in combination with each other they can serve as the impetus for the development of this disease:
- genetic predisposition;
- reducing the protective properties of the organism;
- psycho-emotional disorders;
- pathology of the endocrine system.
It is assumed that psoriasis can be the result of an imbalance in the immune system. In the skin accumulates a large number of T-lymphocytes, which leads to chronic inflammation of the affected areas. Histological examination of psoriatic material confirms the presence of high concentration of immune cells in the affected areas that allows you to confirm the immunological factor in the development of psoriasis.
Genetic predisposition to psoriasis confirmed the presence of mutations in multiple DNA sites. These areas are responsible for the development of immune cells T-lymphocytes. Failure of such sites can trigger the development of psoriasis. Thus, if the parents suffer from psoriasis, the risk of developing this disease in the child is equal to 50% and even higher. Scientists also attribute the development of psoriasis already, in adults with mutations of specific genes.
Also cause the development of psoriasis can be stress, which leads to aggravation of symptoms. Emotional upset can trigger the release of hormones in the blood, which leads to a series of biochemical reactions that in turn contribute to the emergence of various skin rashes.
The study of the etiology of psoriasis has shown that in many patients there are disorders of the endocrine and reproductive system, in addition, they have observed a violation of the process of formation of the pigmentation.
Mention may also be auxiliary factors that contribute to the development of psoriasis: ecology, injury, unbalanced diet, poor living conditions, violations of basic hygiene.
We can say that psoriasis is hereditary to a specific disease: its development involved a complex of the above reasons.
The symptoms of the disease and its types
Psoriasis has some common specific symptoms that allow accurate diagnosis of this disease. When psoriasis develops three characteristic States:
- "paraffin" spots that if you try scraping the nail, peel, and its consistency similar to wax and stearin;
- red shiny surface, which is formed after the separation of scales and plaques. It is commonly called the terminal film;
- a very characteristic symptom of psoriasis is a symptom of "blood dew". If you scrape all the flakes and plaques on the surface of the skin will make small bloody points similar to drops of dew.
Most often, psoriatic lesions are localized in the region of large joints of flexion, in the armpit, scalp, groin, under the Breasts, on the nails. The disease begins with the appearance of small itchy symmetrical rash, then they merge into one large conglomerate, occupying large areas of skin. Itching becomes tolerable, and the separation of scales causing the appearance of "blood dew".
Diagnosis of psoriasis causes some difficulty, as there are many types of this disease. Psoriasis has the following form:
- vulgaris (common psoriasis);
- the psoriasis plaques;
- pustular psoriasis;
- psoriasis flexor surfaces;
- point psoriasis or in the form of drops.
Each type of psoriasis has it's own code in the international qualification of diseases (ICD-10). Each type of disease has its own signs, symptoms, and causes.
The treatment of psoriasis
Psoriasis treatment is more difficult, because the disease has a chronic course with temporary remissions. However, nowadays it is possible to significantly improve the patient's condition by reducing clinical manifestations. Psoriasis treatment is a comprehensive application of common drug therapy, local drug therapy, application of physical therapy techniques and immunomodulators.
Primarily used in topical preparations for external use. The composition of these preparations include substances that contain:
- Glucocorticosteroid hormones which can prevent the active division of the cells of the skin and reduce inflammation, itching and depression of the immune system.
- Drugs based on vitamin D, the efficiency of which is manifested in the compartment with ultraviolet radiation.
- Drugs with active zinc, which can quickly eliminate the itching and redness of the skin.
For the system (common) of psoriasis treatment is used:
- Corticosteroids, which eliminate the symptoms of inflammation and regulate the metabolism.
- Cytotoxic agents prevent uncontrolled cell division.
- Immunomodulators eliminate dysfunction in the immune system.
- Non-steroidal drugs that treat the symptoms of the disease: inflammation and itching, without affecting the causes of the disease.
Physiotherapy treatment encompasses a number of procedures:
- PUVA-therapy. This method is the use of photoactive chemical which is used in conjunction with long-wave ultraviolet radiation.
- Hirudotherapy. The use of leeches for the treatment of psoriasis, which improve the outflow of blood.
- Cryotherapy. The method consists in immersing the patient for a few minutes in the chamber with very low air temperature. This method helps to eliminate the manifestation of foci of inflammation and greatly reduce itching.
Treatment of psoriasis with traditional methods sometimes gives good results. Before you start treatment you need to consult a dermatologist. The doctor needs to be aware of your treatments and fully endorse them.
Complication and prevention of psoriasis
Complications of psoriasis appears serious diseases that are very difficult to treat: psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. Prevention of the disease includes restorative measures:
- sanatorium-resort therapy;
- balanced diet;
- healthy sleep;
- rehabilitation of chronic foci of infection;
- compliance with hygiene;
- moderate sports.