What is psoriasis
Psoriasis (psoriasis) is a non – infectious chronic skin disease that is manifested as flaking and rashes on the skin. Characterized by undulating course with periods of remission (improvement) and periods of exacerbations. The disease can develop at any age, but most often psoriasis affects people of young age.
The intensity of psoriasis can vary greatly in different stages. The disease may affect only a small areas of skin or cover the entire body. Often the disease progresses, patients report that over time (once the period of exacerbation) psoriasis affects a large area of the skin. Besides the skin, there are also nail psoriasis, which can occur in isolated form.
Psoriasis – the causes of the disease
The cause of psoriasis is unknown, but the disease can provoke immunological changes in the body (autoimmune aggression), neurological disorders, disorders metabolic. Contribute to the emergence of psoriasis heredity, impaired immune system after illness, stress.
To date, among the causes and factors development of psoriasis include:
- Genetic predisposition (genetic theory of development of psoriasis). The likelihood of developing psoriasis is higher if a person has close relatives also suffer from this disease. Perhaps some group of genes are responsible for psoriasis.
- Neuro-psychic overvoltage (neurogenic theory for the development of psoriasis). It is known that psoriasis can be triggered by an extreme emotional upheaval. Stress involve serious factors in the development of this disease. In people with psoriasis, stress can cause exacerbation of the disease.
- Hormonal disturbances. Changes in the endocrine glands can be a triggering mechanism in the development of psoriasis.
- A metabolic disorder (metabolic theory of development of psoriasis). Problems with the metabolism, some vitamins and minerals (particularly silicon) may contribute to the appearance of psoriatic plaques.
- Parasites. Discusses the parasitic theory of psoriasis development, according to which the disease is caused by certain intestinal parasites. Numerous studies show that among people who suffer with psoriasis, many carriers of different parasitic infections. Scientists believe that a special role in the development of the disease can play roundworm, Giardia, beef tapeworm, and others. It is believed that the toxic products that emit these parasites are powerful allergens that cause imbalance in the immune system.
- The viral infection.
Although the causes of psoriasis is not fully elucidated, to date, medicine has been known the mechanism of occurrence of this pathology. Based on the appearance of psoriatic rash is a violation of the immune system. The immune cells become aggressive towards their own skin cells, which leads to the appearance of psoriatic plaques.
Psoriasis – symptoms
Psoriasis is manifested by the appearance of scaly spots, red plaques that itch strongly. Spots tend to be located on the skin of the scalp, elbow, knees, in areas of skin folds. Over time, the surface scales can be easily removed, in their place are more dense scales, placed in depth. With the progression of psoriasis, there is a so-called phenomenon Kebnera: the emergence of psoriatic plaques in places of scratches or skin injuries.
Here's the symptoms that are characteristic of different types of psoriasis:
- Psoriasis in the form of plaques looks like raised above the surface of the healthy skin areas red, inflamed, dry, thickened, hot to the touch skin, covered with silvery-white scales (psoriasis patches). The skin on these areas are prone to exfoliation. In place of the skin, which peeled remain red lesions, which are easily injured and bleed. Psoriatic plaques usually merge with each other, increasing in size and forming plate plaques ("paraffin lakes"). Psoriasis flexor surfaces peeling are mild. While there are red spots, which are located in skin folds (groin, the area of the external genitalia, inner thighs, tummy tuck, underarm).
- Guttate psoriasis is characterized by a large amount of dry, small, red or purple lesions, raised above the skin surface, reminiscent of teardrops or circles. These elements are striking in large areas of the skin. Guttate psoriasis often develops after suffering streptococcal infection (e.g. pharyngitis or tonsillitis).
- Pustular psoriasis looks like raised above the surface of the intact skin bubbles filled with clear content. Pustules surrounded by red swollen skin that easily peels off. Nail psoriasis is characterized by the color change of the nails, the nail bed, the appearance of dots, spots, cross-striations on the nails, thickening of the skin around the nail bed, thickening and stratification of the nail, complete loss of nails.
- Psoriatic arthritis is accompanied by inflammation processes in the joints and connective tissue. Psoriatic arthritis most commonly affects the small joints of distal phalanges of hands, feet, causing psoriatic dactylitis. Psoriatic erythroderma appears widespread exfoliation and inflammation, exfoliation of the skin on the large surface of the body, edema, soreness of the skin, intense pruritus.
Other symptoms of psoriasis include:
- bleeding area on the skin;
- the appearance of erosions and dimples on fingernails;
- severe itching;
- possible joint pain and swelling.
The classification of psoriasis
The following types of psoriasis:
- vulgar (common) psoriasis;
- exudative psoriasis;
- arthropathic psoriasis;
- psoriatic erythroderma;
- psoriasis of the palms and soles;
- pustular psoriasis.
Psoriasis occurs in three stages:
- Progressive stage of psoriasis. This is the first stage of the disease, which is characterized by fever, in which there is an increase in the number of fresh lesions.
- Stationary phase of psoriasis. This period is characterized by the preservation of the existing pattern of the disease. Rashes and other symptoms of psoriasis is not getting no more, no less.
- Stage of psoriasis which retreats. This is the final stage of the disease, where lesions are absent.
Depending on the prevalence of pathological process psoriasis happens:
- restricted – affects smaller areas of the body;
- common – affects large areas of the body;
- generalized – affects almost all the body.
Depending on the season, when the disease is acute, psoriasis happens:
- winter – exacerbation of psoriasis usually occurs in the cold season;
- summer – exacerbation of psoriasis occurs in the summer;
- uncertain – when the periods of exacerbation of psoriasis are not associated with any season of the year.
Diagnosis of psoriasis
Diagnose the disease by a dermatologist on the basis of typical clinical picture. To clarify the diagnosis using skin biopsy.
You can take a sun bath for 15 minutes daily. You should refrain from drinking alcohol, avoid stress, watch your weight, maintain a healthy lifestyle to properly care for the skin.
The treatment of psoriasis
For the treatment of psoriasis use emollients and medications that restore the stratum corneum, topical preparations (ointments, lotions, creams) with the content of glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone), preparations containing pyrithione zinc ointment that contains vitamin D3 analogues, tar, naphthalene, hydroxyestrone. In severe forms of psoriasis, the ineffectiveness of topical treatment, lesions more than 20% of the surface of the skin prescribed systemic drug therapy, which includes cytotoxic agents (methotrexate), synthetic retinoids (retinol acetate, retinol palmitate, tretinoin), glucocorticoids, multi-vitamins (aevit, etc.).
A special role in the treatment of psoriasis should be given some biologically active substances, among which worth mentioning:
- Silicon. In recent years doctors are increasingly talking about the role of silicon in the development of psoriasis. One component of the treatment of psoriasis are medications and vitamin-mineral complexes containing silicon. On the one hand, silicon improves the condition of skin, and with another – acts as a sorbent that sucks in the antigens that play a role in the development of psoriasis.
- Vitamin D. As you know, one of the most important minerals necessary for a successful fight against psoriasis is calcium. However, for proper absorption of calcium need vitamin D. the best vitamin products D insert after the transfer of the active phase of psoriasis in the inpatient.
- Fish oil and omega-3 acids. To eliminate the inflammatory process in psoriasis is necessary that the intake of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, which in large quantities contained in fish oil.
- Lecithin. This substance is required for rapid restoration of epithelial cells that die in psoriasis. Preparations lecithin allow to quickly deal with inflammation and restore the integrity of the skin.
Non-drug therapy is systemic photochemotherapy: ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 320-400 NM on a background of reception photosensitizer (PUVA therapy). Also using cryotherapy, plasmapheresis.
The patient must follow special diets. Diet for psoriasis should be balanced. The patient should be excluded from the diet of refined foods, spicy food and sweets. You need to carefully monitor their health and to avoid colds, as any violation of immunity might trigger the development of the disease.
Among the possible complications arthritis, depression caused by low self-esteem.
Prevention of psoriasis
To prevent the disease is impossible, but there are methods that allow to alleviate symptoms of psoriasis and reduce the number of exacerbations. It is necessary to protect the skin from drying, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, try to prevent injury to the skin. Avoid stressful situations, infections, medication that increase the manifestations of psoriasis (e.g., β-blockers, lithium), to stop Smoking, limit alcohol consumption. And remember that treatment of psoriasis should be entrusted to professionals. Psoriasis treatment at home and any kind of self-medication of this disease are unacceptable.