Psoriasis or flake ringworm is a chronic disease that affects the skin and appendages: fingernails and hair. It is characterized by periods of worsening condition (relapses) and temporal well-being, when the manifestations of the disease become less. This disease is not contagious and the patient is not dangerous to others. Because the appearance of psoriasis is not related with the micro-organisms.
Psoriasis is more likely to occur with the age of 15-45 years. You are more likely to be people with fair skin. In developed countries, the number of patients of psoriasis, which affects 2% to 4% of the population. He suffers every 25 o inhabitant of the earth in all continents.
The problem involved in a huge amount of medical institutions. Therefore, the psoriasis has been recognized as the more I study the disease. But, still, this disease has not up to the end studied. Officially it is considered incurable and raises many questions.
Psoriasis is called own immune cells in the body. They rise from the lower layers of the skin in the upper part, causing inflammation, the expansion of the cells of the epidermis and the formation of small capillaries.
The manifestations of psoriasis on the skin very varied. Often, the disease causes the appearance of red spots – psoriatic plaques. That dry to the touch, rise above the surface of the skin and covered with a tap.
Types of psoriasis
The disease is divided into two large groups: pustular and non-pustulous psoriasis.
- common (vulgar) or a simple psoriasis (plaque-like psoriasis a chronic stable psoriasis).
- psoriatic erythroderma or erythrodermal psoriasis
- pustular psoriasis background Tsumbush or generalized pustular psoriasis
- palmoplantary psoriasis (pustular psoriasis members, chronic persistent palmoplantary pustules)
- annulary pustular psoriasis
- Palmar-plantar psoriasis
- herpetiform psoriatic of impetigo
In addition, include such types of psoriasis
- seborrheic psoriasis
- psoriasis flexural surfaces of the skin and wrinkles
- psoriasis Napkin
- psoriasis is caused medications
According to the degree of severity highlight the forms of psoriasis
- Light – struck less than 3% of the skin.
- The centre of gravity – 3-10% of the skin covering the covered plates.
- Heavy – there is joint damage or are involved in more than 10% of the skin.
The causes of psoriasis
Today, there is a good answer to the question: "by what appears to psoriasis?". Scientists advance a number of theories.
Psoriasis – autoimmune disease. It is based on a failure of immunity. The immune cells T-killer cells and helper T cells, the function of defending the body against viruses, bacteria and tumor cells, for some reason, penetrate in the upper layers of the skin. Then, they produce mediators of inflammation – substances that "trigger" the inflammatory response. The result becomes reinforced the division of the cells of the skin and its reproduction (proliferation).
Psoriasis is a disease caused by a disorder of the growth, division and maturation of epithelial cells - keratinocytes. The result of such changes in the skin makes the attack cells of the immune system of T cells and macrophages in the diseased cells of the skin.
The factors that contribute to the development of psoriasis
The doctors point to a series of factors that can cause the appearance of the disease. Of course, more often the psoriasis occurs when the body age of a number of such conditions.
- Hereditary predisposition. There is a version that the genes that are responsible for the functioning of the immune system and the function of T lymphocytes, are carriers of the disease. Therefore, parents who suffer from manifestations of psoriasis, a great possibility of having children, which will develop the same symptoms.
- Slim dry skin. It has been observed that people with such features of the skin covering get sick more often than those with oily skin, and very wet. Probably, this is related to features of protection of sebum and characteristics of the building skin of the integument.
- External irritants. A high percentage of patients among those people that are in constant contact with alcohol, solvents, solvents, household cleaning products, cosmetic products (lotions, creams for the hands).
- Excess of hygiene is excess of love, the purity, also affect the protective properties of the skin. Soap, shower gel and cloths washed away the natural barrier and leave a microscopic lesion.
- Bad habits – addiction to alcohol, smoking and drugs is bad for the state of the skin. Worsens their nutrition and the blood circulation.
- HIV / Aids are more susceptible to the occurrence of psoriasis. Scientists can not explain this phenomenon. The fact is that the psoriasis is called the increase in the activity of b lymphocytes and Aids their number reduced.
- Medications – taking certain medications can trigger the disease. Among them: beta-blockers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and anti-malarial drugs, lithium carbonate.
- Infections of fungi and staphylococci). Were often observed in cases of psoriasis, appeared immediately after the fungal lesions or diseases caused by streptococcus.
- Change – change of climate or even the time of year one, the environmental degradation can become a triggering mechanism for this disease.
- Highlights – strong emotional disturbances, or physical stress (long periods of cold, overheat, fault) precede the onset of the first symptoms of psoriasis.
- Injury – a permanent impact on the skin: pressure, friction, comb. Is regular detachment can become the cause in the first place psoriatic plaques.
- A condition allergic – skin rash-allergic processes, which occur when, in all layers of the skin, also increase the risk of disease.
What are the signs and symptoms of psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a systemic disease that reaches not only the skin and the nails. From it suffer from the joints, tendon and spine, immune, nervous and endocrine system. Are often amazed with the kidney, liver, thyroid. The patient feels a strong weakness, suffers from chronic fatigue and depression. In connection with a complex activity on the body, the disease in recent years, it is called psoriatic arthritis the disease.
But still, the main manifestations of the disease occur in the skin coverage. The name "flake ringworm" quite conveys with precision the symptoms of psoriasis. The first manifestations, often become papules color of pink or bright red with correct rounded shape, covered in scales – psoriatic arthritis plate. They are positioned symmetrically, mainly in the extensor surfaces, lower back and scalp. But can reach any area of the skin and mucosa of the genitals. Its size of a few millimeters, in the initial stages, up to ten centimeters and more.
Depending on the characteristics of pruritus, the share of such forms of psoriasis:
- The map of psoriasis – the size of the items smaller pinhead.
- The guttate psoriasis – papules are in the form of tears, and reach grain sizes.
- Nummular psoriasis – plaque grow up to 3 mm to 5 mm and have rounded edges.
Also the distinction between forms of acne, when their elements have the appearance of rings, bows, and festoons, the option of maps with jagged edges.
Papules covered with a touch, that is easily removed. It is composed of Horny cells of the epidermis. Psoriatic plaques begin to be covered with scales from the center, then the plaque extends to the outside. - The loose and a shiny appearance, due to the fact that Horny cells are spaces filled with air. Around elements can form a rose ring – this is the phase of inflammation, the area of growth of the platelets. The skin around the elements of the itching is not changed.
Under the touch is detected smooth, shiny, bright red surface. Is the blood capillaries with thin walls, covered in superfine film. They become visible due to thinning of the upper layers of the skin. The Normal structure of the dermal integument is broken because of this is that the cells are keratinocytes do not manifest and do not have normal time to differentiate.
The scalp psoriasis is a psoriatic of the plate, which is much above the surrounding skin. They are densely covered with scales, which approximate the dandruff. When you do this, the hair remains not dead. Rashes can be not only in the hair, but also soften the skin on the neck and behind the ears. Such changes are explained by dividing the active keratinocytes in the affected sites
Psoriasis stop, and the palms of the hands causes strong thickening of the horny layer of the skin in these areas of the body. The skin becomes thick, rough. She often permeate the crack. This is caused by an intensive division of cells, which multiply up to 8 times faster than the common one, but are not removed on time with the surface of the skin.
Psoriasis of the nails is different from a variety of symptoms. But of greater importance are two main types of injuries nails lps:
- About the type of "thimbles". In studs and a plate to form a small pit, similar to the marks of the needle.
- By type of onychomycosis. The defeat reminiscent of the fungus in the nails. Nail can thicken, change color, flake. Through nail plate visible psoriatic papule, surrounded the red, the rim. She has the appearance of oil stains, translucent through a nail.
Signs and symptoms of psoriasis depend on the stage of the disease, which occur cyclically throughout the year. Thus, the majority of patients it is celebrated the "winter" type of the disease, when the worsening of the accounted for in the period of autumn-winter. Improvement of the state of summer due to the fact that the light of the sun exerts a corrective action. But some patients suffer from "summer" type.
Include such phase of the current of psoriasis:
- progressing – the emergence of new elements, active growth of existing cards, color pink areas of growth around them, intense flaking and itching.
- fixed: – stop the growth of papules, the lack of new eruptions, a little folding of the top layer of the skin around psoriatic plaques.
- regressing– the lack of bark, the disappearance of plates and the emergence in its place pigmentation areas, attest to the attenuation of the process.
How are the eruptions of the skin when the psoriasis?
Every body is different and reacts differently to the disease. Therefore, the character of eruptions can be very varied. This explains the diversity of forms and types of psoriasis.
However, the majority of people the symptoms of psoriasis are similar. This patches of red color – psoriatic plaque, rising to 1 to 3 mm above the level of the healthy skin. Their emergence is caused by the fact that the cells of the superficial layer of the skin – keratinocytes, divided very active, you will not be able to mature and turn into a complete epithelial cells. The result of such enhanced pathological growth of some parts of the skin thicken. This occurs under the action of the immune cells, release chemicals that cause inflammation in the skin coverage.
The spots are red in color. And if you uncheck the headers option flakes psoriatic plaque, then, the surface begins to be charged with a dew. This is due to the fact that, under the influence of T lymphocytes and immune dendritic cells enhanced the formation of new blood vessels under the plaque. They have very thin walls. This causes bleeding psoriatic plaque with the minor damage.
Sometimes, through the walls of these vessels drains the lymph and exudate inflammatory. When the crust on the plate becomes thick, yellowish. Its surface to the touch damp.
Top of the platelets can be covered with grey, silver or a touch of yellow, which has the appearance of wax. Therefore, they received the name – "wax of the lake". Is Horny epithelial cells, the rejection of which is disturbed and they accumulate on the surface of the affected area of the skin.
The point chip, warmer to the touch than the skin of the rest, they can reach large sizes. Many times the patient feels a strong itching on the location. This is due to the fact that, in the context of an inflammatory process occurs, a cascade of neuro-reflex reactions and allergic reaction.
Another type of elements of papules. Are small elements of acne, resembling bump. The size of about 1 mm. In the middle are not cavity full of content. Many times, they are in the knee and elbow joints. They remain, even in periods, when the disease subsides.
The first plates occur in places where the skin is more dry and in contact with household cleaning products and detergents – in open areas the hands, neck. They can be in all parts of the body: on the scalp, the face, the body, the genitals, buttocks, legs. Unlike fungal diseases, psoriatic precipitation do not appear in the armpits and natural folds, where the skin is more moist and oily. In some forms of the disease only appears several plates, which do not increase in size. When Palmar-plantar to defeat are only in these areas.
During exacerbations elements rash gradually grows in width and merge with the other cards. In periods of improvement (remission) points begin to lighten with the environment. They gradually acquire the type of ring and can very dissolve. After plates in the body remains the trail – pigmentation. It can be a lot more clear or more dark around parts of the skin. After that the man get a tan, skin color is usually aligned.