Nail psoriasis and skin, psoriasis on the head - causes, stages, treatment

Psoriasis is a noncommunicable chronic disease, in most cases, which affects the skin (rarely – nail plates, the scalp). Appears excessively dry, red spots, protrude slightly above the surface of the skin (papules). Merge papules form plaques, which are sources of chronic inflammation.


Psoriasis is passed or not?

Answering the question, psoriasis is contagious or not, it should be understood that the disease is not transmitted neither sexually nor airborne or contact or any other way. To catch it is impossible.

Due to violation of the exfoliation process, dead skin flakes appear on the body dry areas. Of dying from them is impossible, but patients experience serious psychological discomfort because of their appearance.

Causes of psoriasis

Still not precisely determined, which occurs psoriasis. There are different theories of developing the disease. Experts are inclined to believe that the defeat of the skin and nails can cause:

  • stress, negative emotional experiences;
  • endocrine pathology;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • the failure of the immune system, which violated the processes of growth and division of epithelial cells.

Autoimmune the cause of psoriasis is that the immune cells are T-helpers and T-killers, normally responsible for protecting the body from tumor cells, pathogenic viruses and bacteria start to penetrate into the upper layers of the skin. Here they produce substances that activate the inflammatory process. As a result, the skin cells begin to intensely divide and multiply. There is a proliferation.

The development of psoriasis and possibly to the combined action of several factors from the following list:

  • Very thin and poorly moisturized skin (sebum produced little).
  • Frequent contact with irritating compositions – low-quality cosmetics, alcohol solutions, detergents.
  • Too frequent washing of the body, hands (especially if you use hard washcloth and antibacterial soap/shower gel).
  • The abuse of alcohol.
  • The development of infectious diseases caused by Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, fungi.
  • Taking anti-depressants, lithium carbonate, beta blockers, antimalarial and anticonvulsant drugs.
  • Change of climatic zones.
  • Mechanical injury to the skin.
  • The tendency to allergic reactions.
  • HIV infection.

Classification of the disease

If you study various pictures of psoriasis in the initial stage, there will be noticeable differences – there are several varieties of this dermatological disease. Depending on the site of the damage is:

  • Psoriasis of the scalp (manifested by itching bloody skin).
  • Nail psoriasis (nail plate separated from bed gradually and becomes painful, it formed red spots).
  • Palmar-plantar psoriasis (disease is prevalent only on the feet and/or palms).
  • Skin psoriasis (dry plaques appear on different parts of the body).
  • Psoriasis Arthropathy (diseased joints).
  • Genital psoriasis (a skin disease covers the genitals).

Clinical forms of psoriasis:

  1. Ordinary or vulgar. Appears flat rose-red papules of small size, which slightly rise above healthy skin. On top of the papule is covered with light scales, which begin to fall away even with a light touch. If psoriasis treatment started late, the small lesions are merged into large.
  2. Exudative. More common in people with obesity, hypofunction of the thyroid gland, diabetics. Symptoms of psoriasis the form of the following: papules are of a bright red color, on top of them are rendered yellow-gray scales. Plaque striking skin folds – armpits, the area under the Breasts in women. Patients complain of itching, burning.
  3. Seborrheic. Psoriasis observed on the head, behind the ear, nasolabial folds, between the shoulder blades, on the chest. The boundaries of the spots are not distinct. Peeling silvery-yellow. If you look at photos of psoriasis on the head, any Association with this common fungal disease like dandruff.
  4. Palmar-plantar. The disease occurs in people aged 30 to 50 years whose work involves heavy physical labor. In this form there may be rashes on the body.
  5. Pustular. On the body are formed pustular elements. In medicine allocate additional kind of pustular forms of psoriasis Tsumbush. It is idiopathic (primary) - appear on the skin bubbles that transformirovalsya in pustules. Pustules are opened and dry. Later they appear typical of the disease scaly rash. And secondary benign. In this case there are abscesses on the surface of a typical psoriatic plaques due to the irritant action of drugs.
  6. Another type of pustular forms of psoriasis Barbera. It only affects the soles and palms. The skin rendered purulent pustules. They don't reveal, turn into dry dark brown. Psoriasis Barbera is distinguished by symmetrical lesions.
  7. Arthropathy (articular). A severe form. Found in patients who have skin rashes. Usually occurs after five to six years after the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease, if the treatment of psoriasis was illiterate. Pathology of joints can be different, ranging from not detected arthralgia that do not lead to changes in the articular apparatus, ending the deforming ankylosis (the joint is completely fixed).
  8. Psoriatic erythroderma. Is a consequence of the vulgar or exudative psoriasis. Affects almost all the skin. It turns red, studded with a large number of dry scales. The body temperature rises, there is an increase of lymph nodes (especially the inguinal and femoral). If the patient does not know how to treat the psoriasis is possible hair loss, brittle nails.

According to the criterion of seasonal recurrences of psoriasis are divided into:

  • summer;
  • winter (most common);
  • uncertain.

The symptoms of psoriasis

From dominant symptoms of psoriasis depends on the treatment, so at the first appointment, the doctor performs a thorough examination of the patient thoroughly examines the localization of psoriatic lesions.

Often the disease appears in winter. In the summer, under the influence of solar radiation, signs of psoriasis can completely disappear. However, when the "summer" form of disease, exposure to the sun, on the contrary, should be avoided. In the period of exacerbation the patient complains of very severe itching. The defeat of nail plates observed in 25% of patients.

When the disease of the scalp hair is not involved in the pathological process. First it begins to peel off the skin. Over time, areas of lesions can "spill over" to the neck, behind the ears. The inflammatory process due to the very rapid division of keratinocytes.

Psoriasis of the palms and soles stratum corneum is thickened and covered with deep cracks. Photos of psoriasis at the initial stage demonstrates the blisters with clear content. Later they become white and turn into dark scars.

As for nails, the most common two types of defeat:

  • The nail becomes covered with holes that look like track marks (type"thimble").
  • The nail changes color and starts to flake that resembles a fungal disease. Through the nail plate varies psoriatic papule surrounded by a red rim.

Stages of psoriasis

Despite the fact that still some debate about what is psoriasis and what can trigger its occurrence, stage of the disease have been studied. Three of them:

  1. Progressive (primary). On the surface of the skin growths appear in the form of rash, which tend to growth at the periphery. They apply to healthy skin and form oval or rounded plaques. The spots are pink or red. Flaky crust on them yet – only whitish scales. Edges of pockets are a bit condensed. As a result of scratching appear more rashes.
  2. Stationary. Occurs within one to four weeks after the first symptoms of psoriasis. Plaques become lighter. New eruptions do not appear, old slowly dissolve. Notes the healing of papules in the direction from the center to the edges, so their form becomes a circle. All of the surface healing of the lesions covered with white scales.
  3. Regression (damped). The color of psoriatic plaques is virtually indistinguishable from the healthy skin. Minimizes itching. Around the centers formed a "collar Voronova", which is a ring of thick keratinized layers of the skin. If the patient uses quality ointment of psoriasis, the stage of regression lasts about one month. Otherwise, the process of "attenuation" can take up to six months.

The task of the patient, who was diagnosed with psoriasis is to keep the disease in remission.

If You experience these symptoms, immediately consult a doctor. It is easier to prevent disease than to deal with the consequences.

How is diagnosis of psoriasis


Diagnosis does psoriasis dermatologist. The procedure is based on an external inspection, assessment skin and nails, the study foci. No more tests in the apparent symptoms are not assigned. If you have difficulty with the diagnosis, a sample of skin with an inflamed area (biopsy), which is studied in the laboratory.

When complaints of pain in the joints is x-rays. Also assigned a blood test to verify the absence of other types of arthritis. To exclude fungal infection test is performed using potassium hydroxide.

How to cure psoriasis

Treatment of psoriasis is complex. It includes:

  • a common therapy;
  • local therapy;
  • physiotherapy.

Before determining how to treat the psoriasis, the dermatologist determines the stage of the disease and its clinical form distribution process. In the appointment of treatment takes into account the patient's age and the existence of comorbidities. Usually first selected the most safe for health drugs that are characterized by a minimum number of side effects. If they do not provide for the transition of psoriasis in the stage of regression, treatment is adjusted.

Systemic medicines for psoriasis

Medications taken by mouth, help for moderate and severe stages of psoriasis. These include:

  • Derivatives of vitamin A (retinoids). Reduce the rate of maturation of keratinocytes. Normalize the differentiation and maturation of cells.
  • Immunosuppressants. Reduce the activity of T-lymphocytes, provoking increased cell division of the epidermis.
  • Drugs for the treatment of malignant tumors. Inhibit the reproduction and growth of abnormal skin cells.

Physical therapy in psoriasis

Physiotherapy significantly improve the health of patients with psoriasis. In some cases they allow to completely abandon the drugs. Most often used:

  1. Selective phototherapy. The affected skin is irradiated with UV rays with a wavelength of 280-320 nm. Assigned 15 to 35 procedures.
  2. Photochemotherapy (PUVA therapy). The method involves the sharing of the photosensitizer inside and long-wave UV radiation externally. UV rays penetrate deep into the skin, and the photosensitizer blocks the process of DNA synthesis of skin cells, reduces their rate of division. Course duration – 20 to 30 procedures.
  3. Laser therapy. Applied laser radiation with different wavelength. Laser provides rapid resorption of plaque, prevents the formation in their place of scars.
  4. The use of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation. Each hearth turns handle tube/laser source of UV radiation. Healthy skin is not affected. Method works best when the affected less than 10% of the skin. The duration of treatment is from 15 to 30 sessions.
  5. Electrosleep. It turns out the soft effect of electrical impulses on the brain for 20-60 minutes. As a result, the patient calms down, normalizes the Central nervous system, psoriatic plaques are starting to dissolve.
  6. ULTRASONIC therapy. Is decongestants, anti-itching and painkillers. Accelerates the resorption of scarring. If necessary, can be combined with phonophoresis. To achieve a therapeutic effect it is necessary to conduct 7 to 14 sessions.
  7. The magnetic therapy. Has a General healing effect on the body. Reduces inflammation, reduces itching and burning, helps relieve pain in the joints.
  8. Bee venom therapy. Using the apparatus for electrophoresis or ultrasound introduced into the body in bee venom. It is characterized by a resolving and anti-inflammatory effect, normalizes metabolic processes.
  9. Hyperthermia. Psoriatic tissue heat pads with thermal compound to a temperature of 40 degrees. The treatment helps to improve the immune system, reduce the negative impact of the disease on the skin.

Diet for psoriasis

Allowed foods in the exacerbation of psoriasis are:

  • fruits (apples, apricots, peaches);
  • fruit juices;
  • vegetables (beets, potatoes, radish, watermelon, pumpkin);
  • greens;
  • berries (all but red);
  • lean meats (beef, veal, Turkey, rabbit) – up to 200 grams a day;
  • any nuts;
  • lean fish;
  • dairy products, cheese and cheese;
  • whole wheat bread;
  • seaweed.

Patients with psoriasis can not eat:

  • smoked foods;
  • red fish;
  • animal fats;
  • eggs;
  • pork and duck meat;
  • seasoning.

Forbidden to drink coffee, soda, and alcoholic drinks. It is desirable to limit the consumption of sugar. To cleanse the body twice a week is recommended fasting days – vegetable, Apple, or kefir.